... Beaucoup de critères d'analyse ont été utilisés pour étudier les PME « particulières » ou « extraordinaires » (Welter et al., 2017) : par exemple le niveau de dépenses de R&D (entreprises de haute technologie [Hirsch-Kreinsen et Jacobson, 2008]) ; l'âge de l'entreprise (des entre-prises en démarrage [Birley et Westhead, 1993 ;Gatewood, Shaver et Gartner, 1995]) ; le type de propriété (entreprises familiales [Fernández et Nieto, 2005 ; Basco et Pérez Rodríguez, 2009]) ; la localisation (les entreprises à domicile [Thompson, Jones-Evans et Kwong, 2009 ;Mason, Carter et Tagg, 2011]), ou le but pour lequel elles ont été créées (entreprises sociales [Shaw et Carter, 2007]). ...
... For example, only five academic papers explicitly investigate HBB owner motivations (see Walker, 2003; Jurik, 1998; 2004; Mason et al., 2011; Loscocco and Smith-Hunter, 2004) with three further contributions from practitioner papers (see Enterprise Nation, 2009; Dwelly et al., 2005; British Telecommunications, 2008). This may be because when considering motivations, the HBB has been likened to self-employment and small business, with Thompson et al. (2009) reporting for their all-female sample of business owner-operators that motivations are similar irrespective of business location. ...
... Meanwhile, researchers have reached different results on the growth of women's HBBs. Some studies have found these kinds of businesses weak and with very limited motivation and potential for growth (Loscocco and Smith-Hunter, 2004; Thompson et al., 2009). Yet, most studies conducted on women's HBBs have proved that they are completely serious and are growing across all sectors (Breen, 2010; Breen and Karanasios, 2010; Wynarczyk and Graham, 2013;Clark and Douglas, 2014;Modarresi et al., 2016b). ...
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... In addition, flexibility is presented as a source of conflict that impedes growth ( Shelton 2006) that may even leads women not to pursue self-employment ( Greene et al. 2013). The quest for flexibility also means that women attach less value to business expansion ( Cliff 1998;Noseleit 2014), spend less time on their ventures ( Longstreth et al. 1987) and are pushed into working part-time from home ( Thompson et al. 2009). Although some studies contest the notion that the relationship between work and family must be a source of conflict ( Powell 2012, Özcan 2011;Marlow 1997), the implication persists that this is a "women's issue". ...

Les femmes et l'entrepreneuriat depuis chez soiTémoignage du Royaume-Uni Piers Thompson Institut de l'Université du pays de Galles, Cardiff, R.-U. Dylan Jones-Evans Université du pays de Galles, R.-U. Caleb Kwong Université d'Essex, R.-U. Pour la femme, le fait de posséder et de gérer sa propre entreprise à partir de chez soi peut lui offrir la possibilité d'assumer ses devoirs familiaux et de pouvoir travailler, bien que potentiellement aux dépens du rendement et de l'essor de l'entreprise. S'appuyant sur des informations émanant de l'enquête GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor — Moniteur de l'entrepreneuriat mondial), cette note de recherche analyse les caractéristiques des femmes travaillant à leur compte à partir de chez elles. Les résultats, auxquels est parvenue cette étude, indiquent qu'une grande proportion de femmes disposant de ressources entrepreneuriales modestes a davantage tendance à diriger leurs activités de chez elles, suggérant que cette décision a un caractère circonstanciel. L'étude indique en outre que ce type d'activités est probablement géré sur une base à temps partiel, — facteur qui contribue davantage à la marginalisation de ces femmes.
... As the present study results showed, most of participants (75 per cent of the women interviewed) aspired a higher growth level for their HBBs and had a strong motivation for expanding their businesses. This is consistent with the studies ofBreen (2010), Wynarczyk and Graham (2013) and Clark and Douglas (2014) that recognize women-owned HBBs as completely dedicated, ambitious and expanding and is contrary to the study ofThompson et al. (2009)that considers women-owned HBBs weak and with very limited motivation. Negative stereotypes about women in Iran which are usually fused with biased attitudes and behaviors, affect the attitude of women toward themselves and act as a mental barrier that stifles women's ambition and risk-taking propensity. ...
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