... In essence, women are disadvantageously positioned within labour markets constraining employment opportunities which, in turn, limit the accrual of resources-such as savings, networks, managerial experience-to support new venture creation. Consequently women-owned businesses are likely to be concentrated in lower order services with around a third of ventures operated from the home and on a p art-time basis ( Thompson et al., 2009). Unsurprisingly, such operational profiles have related implications for constrained profitability, entrepreneurial legitimacy and growth prospects ( Marlow and McAdam, 2013) and in addition, we would argue, repercussions upon the exit decision and process. ...

The problems were analyzed and confronted in two ways. In 1980 the National Alliance of Homebased Businesswomen was founded to combat the isolation expressed by the respondents as well as to fight the laws which made conducting their businesses difficult.[6][7][8][9] Then Women Working Home: The Homebased Guide and Directory by Marion Behr and Wendy Lazar was published.[10] It contained the stories of many women who ran home-based businesses throughout the country in many diverse fields, as well as information on business formation, conduct and compliance with the law. It sold 50,000 copies. During this time many national magazines wrote about these issues.[11][12][13][14][15] At the White House Conference on Small Business in 1986, one of the major resolutions was a recommendation favoring lifting restrictions on home-based business.[16]


... In terms of industry, there appears to be some 2 concentration in business services (Soldressen et al. 1998; Loscocco & Smith-Hunter 2004), and several studies find home-based firms are started with low levels of initial capitalisation (Loscocco & Smith-Hunter 2004; Thompson et al. 2009). Home-based business are also said to have lower growth ambitions than other firms and are likely to have few or no employees (Thompson et al. 2009; Newbery & Bosworth 2010). There is much assertion throughout the limited literature that motivations for starting home-based bsuinesses are based on the flexibility they afford in terms of work-life balance (Baines & Gelder 2003; Thompson et al. 2009), including balancing work and domestic commitments, often cited as particularly suited to working mothers (Loscocco & Smith-Hunter 2004; Ekinsmyth 2011). ...
... For example, only five academic papers explicitly investigate HBB owner motivations (see Walker, 2003; Jurik, 1998; 2004; Mason et al., 2011; Loscocco and Smith-Hunter, 2004) with three further contributions from practitioner papers (see Enterprise Nation, 2009; Dwelly et al., 2005; British Telecommunications, 2008). This may be because when considering motivations, the HBB has been likened to self-employment and small business, with Thompson et al. (2009) reporting for their all-female sample of business owner-operators that motivations are similar irrespective of business location. ...
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