... Women (with and without dependent children) of this business type are distributed fairly equally across urban and rural areas. It is striking that a higher proportion of these businesses than home-based businesses on average had increased their turnover in the previous two years, which contradicts the view that 'mumpreneur' businesses are of marginal relevance in terms of turnover and value added (Thompson et al. 2009). The second distinct group of business owners run the business from home because of their own illness or disability or care of an elderly or disabled person. ...
... Beaucoup de critères d'analyse ont été utilisés pour étudier les PME « particulières » ou « extraordinaires » (Welter et al., 2017) : par exemple le niveau de dépenses de R&D (entreprises de haute technologie [Hirsch-Kreinsen et Jacobson, 2008]) ; l'âge de l'entreprise (des entre-prises en démarrage [Birley et Westhead, 1993 ;Gatewood, Shaver et Gartner, 1995]) ; le type de propriété (entreprises familiales [Fernández et Nieto, 2005 ; Basco et Pérez Rodríguez, 2009]) ; la localisation (les entreprises à domicile [Thompson, Jones-Evans et Kwong, 2009 ;Mason, Carter et Tagg, 2011]), ou le but pour lequel elles ont été créées (entreprises sociales [Shaw et Carter, 2007]). ...
... To illustrate, three empirical studies are described, though this is not exhaustive. First, Thompson et al. (2009) use Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data, basing their measurement of HBB on nascent and start-up activities in the home. Elsewhere, Felstead et al. (2000) base their study on the 1998 Labour Force Survey that explores those who work mainly, sometimes or partially at home (both employed and self-employed), thus not separating employment and self-employment status. ...
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... The first group believes that women go for HBBs because they have no other alternatives. Therefore, as the house is used as a business location, the growth of their business has been limited; their activity is thoroughly made marginal, because less time is used for the business; its survival is even under question ( Thompson et al., 2009), but Breen and Karanasios (2010) believe that managerial qualifications and access to capital and marketing skills make women-owned HBBs grow. Of course, there are significant gender differences at work in HBBs ( Holmes et al., 1997). ...
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