... Meanwhile, researchers have demonstrated different results on the growth of women's HBBs. Some studies have found these kinds of businesses weak and with a very limited motivation and potential for growth (Loscocco and Smith-Hunter, 2004;Thompson et al., 2009), whereas other studies have proved that they are very dedicated and expanding in all sectors (Breen and Karanasios, 2010;Breen, 2010;Wynarczyk and Graham, 2013;Clark and Douglas, 2014). Motivations are among important gender differences in HBBs and while men often choose HBBs as a response to special life circumstances (e.g. ...

Entrepreneurship research is progressing towards the construction of indexes that integrate the information of the three predominant approaches: the entrepreneurial activity output; the population's entrepreneurial behavior, values and aspirations; and the context in which entrepreneurship takes place. In this study we compare the Global Competitiveness Index data, one of the objective sources of ... [Show full abstract]View full-text
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... To some extent, business processes that enable women to participate in home-based entrepreneurial ventures overcome these barriers . Thus, in contrast to developed countries where homebased working offers poor returns (Thompson et al. 2009), home working offers a solution to restrictions on women's mobility, family responsibilities and a route out of poverty. In Muslim countries, women are considered the repository of family honour, and their chastity and good reputation are valued and guarded (Shaheed 1990). ...
... In fact, some employees who work most of their time from home are paid low wages although there are also high earners among this group of workers (Felstead et al., 2002). For the self-employed, there is good evidence of the low earnings of homeworking women compared to self-employed women for whom most of the activity is performed outside of their homes, while no penalty of homeworking on earnings among self-employed men could be found (Simon and McDonald Way, 2015; see also Thompson et al., 2009). ...
Les femmes et l'entrepreneuriat depuis chez soiTémoignage du Royaume-Uni Piers Thompson Institut de l'Université du pays de Galles, Cardiff, R.-U. Dylan Jones-Evans Université du pays de Galles, R.-U. Caleb Kwong Université d'Essex, R.-U. Pour la femme, le fait de posséder et de gérer sa propre entreprise à partir de chez soi peut lui offrir la possibilité d'assumer ses devoirs familiaux et de pouvoir travailler, bien que potentiellement aux dépens du rendement et de l'essor de l'entreprise. S'appuyant sur des informations émanant de l'enquête GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor — Moniteur de l'entrepreneuriat mondial), cette note de recherche analyse les caractéristiques des femmes travaillant à leur compte à partir de chez elles. Les résultats, auxquels est parvenue cette étude, indiquent qu'une grande proportion de femmes disposant de ressources entrepreneuriales modestes a davantage tendance à diriger leurs activités de chez elles, suggérant que cette décision a un caractère circonstanciel. L'étude indique en outre que ce type d'activités est probablement géré sur une base à temps partiel, — facteur qui contribue davantage à la marginalisation de ces femmes.
... The literature comes to very different conclusions with respect to the 'success' and growth ambitions of women HBB entrepreneurs. Some conclude that these businesses operate at the margins and struggle to survive (Thompson et al. 2009), while others found that home-based women owners were highly educated and made large sales (Loscocco and Smith-Hunter 2004). Home-based businesses are often regarded as 'lifestyle' businesses through which the owner translates a 'hobby' into a business idea (Newbery and Bosworth 2010). ...
... Complementing Hypotheses 2a and 2b, we posit that societal institutional collectivism will be more negatively associated with the probability that individuals engage in self-employment on a full-time rather than a part-time basis. Part-time self-employment allows comparatively more time to be spent upon other activities, such as caring for the home and family (Burke et al., 2008;Thompson et al., 2009). This resonates with societal expectations to act according with the collec- tive's interest ( Bullough et al., 2017). ...
The concept of home-based business, as opposed to the previous terminology of "cottage industry", first appeared in 1978. The phrase was coined by Marion Behr, the originator of a study to find out what businesses women throughout America were carrying on in their homes. The preview edition of Enterprising Women[3] wrote about the search to gather information pertaining to home workers throughout the nation. Numerous magazines[4][5] and organizations helped to disseminate information regarding the study. Ultimately 40,000 letters were received, many indicating the problems the respondents experienced while carrying on businesses from their homes.
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