... Entrepreneurship and location (ruralÀurban) Geographical location appears to be crucial in explaining entrepreneurship development. Empirical pieces of evidence show that higher competition, increase in population resulting higher population density, higher demand for goods and services, etc., result in higher entrepreneurship opportunities (Sorenson and Audia 2000; Reynolds et al. 2002; Shane 2003; Sternberg 2009). Studies found that the growth of entrepreneurship in the urban areas is much higher than that of rural areas (Shane 2003; Glaeser, Rosenthal, and Strange 2010). ...
... A more recent study by Tlaiss (2013) finds that rather than either push or pull motivational factors, women entrepreneurs demonstrate a complex interplay of both types of motivation. Other gendered aspects include lifestyle strategies for balancing work and home-life (Breen, 2009/10; Philipps, 2008; Duberley and Carrigan, 2013), feelings of isolation (Greenhaus et al., 2003; Thompson et al., 2009), attitudes to IT (Ndubisi, 2008) and attitudes to growth (Ehlers and Main, 1998; Breen and Karanasios, 2010; Redmond and Walker, 2009/10). We suggest that many of the contradictions of gendered aspects arise from the confounding of different types of home-based business, and would encourage researchers to focus on particular business types, such as our focus on home-based online businesses and the development of the detailed typology shown in Table 1We also suggest that the ease of experimentation offered by the online environment provides an explanation for the low levels of self-efficacy we identified. ...
... Meanwhile, researchers have demonstrated different results on the growth of women's HBBs. Some studies have found these kinds of businesses weak and with a very limited motivation and potential for growth (Loscocco and Smith-Hunter, 2004;Thompson et al., 2009), whereas other studies have proved that they are very dedicated and expanding in all sectors (Breen and Karanasios, 2010;Breen, 2010;Wynarczyk and Graham, 2013;Clark and Douglas, 2014). Motivations are among important gender differences in HBBs and while men often choose HBBs as a response to special life circumstances (e.g. ...
... Most prolific are studies based in the UK. These studies cover a range of research themes., including the effects of technology diffusion (Daniel et al., 2014;Ruiz and Walling, 2005); urban or rural con- text (Dwelly et al., 2005;Newbery and Bosworth, 2010;Reuschke and Mason, 2015); housing stock (Reuschke, 2016) and gender (Ekinsmyth, 2013;Thompson et al., 2009). Whatever the focus however, HBBs are largely treated as homogenous entities in empirical studies. ...
... Studies from various locations do give us some information, though. In terms of industry, there appears to be some 2 concentration in business services (Soldressen et al. 1998; Loscocco & Smith-Hunter 2004), and several studies find home-based firms are started with low levels of initial capitalisation (Loscocco & Smith-Hunter 2004; Thompson et al. 2009). Home-based business are also said to have lower growth ambitions than other firms and are likely to have few or no employees (Thompson et al. 2009; Newbery & Bosworth 2010). ...
... Meanwhile, researchers have reached different results on the growth of women's HBBs. Some studies have found these kinds of businesses weak and with very limited motivation and potential for growth (Loscocco and Smith-Hunter, 2004; Thompson et al., 2009). Yet, most studies conducted on women's HBBs have proved that they are completely serious and are growing across all sectors (Breen, 2010; Breen and Karanasios, 2010; Wynarczyk and Graham, 2013;Clark and Douglas, 2014;Modarresi et al., 2016b). ...
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