... In terms of industry, there appears to be some 2 concentration in business services (Soldressen et al. 1998; Loscocco & Smith-Hunter 2004), and several studies find home-based firms are started with low levels of initial capitalisation (Loscocco & Smith-Hunter 2004; Thompson et al. 2009). Home-based business are also said to have lower growth ambitions than other firms and are likely to have few or no employees (Thompson et al. 2009; Newbery & Bosworth 2010). There is much assertion throughout the limited literature that motivations for starting home-based bsuinesses are based on the flexibility they afford in terms of work-life balance (Baines & Gelder 2003; Thompson et al. 2009), including balancing work and domestic commitments, often cited as particularly suited to working mothers (Loscocco & Smith-Hunter 2004; Ekinsmyth 2011). ...
... Previous studies of the factors relating to the management of a small enterprise, whether it is formal or informal production [9] [10], home-based or non-home based [11], or on a part-time or full-time status [12] contend that person's disposition (personality traits) and other external factors in person's surroundings (e.g supportive upbringing, financial situation, family and friends, networking, government support) might have an impact on their performance. So far, it is often assumed that higher performing enterprises are more likely to be operated from formal dedicated premises, with full-time employees, well-planned marketing activities and accounting tasks, whereas part-time and home-based businesses are likely to be smaller in scale, less formally managed and achieving lower revenues [11]. Starting and surviving a business is influenced by various socio-economic contexts, whether the business is operated in rural or urban areas [9] [13]. ...

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... In addition, although gender has been the primary focus of a significant proportion of HBB research (e.g. Loscocco and Smith-Hunter, 2004; Walker et al., 2008; Thompson et al., 2009), it was not the focus of this research; thus, equal numbers of male and female participants were included, facilitated by the purposive intensity sample approach. Urban/rural classifications were based on Scottish Government guidelines where urban is a settlement of 10,000 or more (The Scottish Government, 2013). ...
... Entrepreneurship and location (ruralÀurban) Geographical location appears to be crucial in explaining entrepreneurship development. Empirical pieces of evidence show that higher competition, increase in population resulting higher population density, higher demand for goods and services, etc., result in higher entrepreneurship opportunities (Sorenson and Audia 2000; Reynolds et al. 2002; Shane 2003; Sternberg 2009). Studies found that the growth of entrepreneurship in the urban areas is much higher than that of rural areas (Shane 2003; Glaeser, Rosenthal, and Strange 2010). ...
The problems were analyzed and confronted in two ways. In 1980 the National Alliance of Homebased Businesswomen was founded to combat the isolation expressed by the respondents as well as to fight the laws which made conducting their businesses difficult.[6][7][8][9] Then Women Working Home: The Homebased Guide and Directory by Marion Behr and Wendy Lazar was published.[10] It contained the stories of many women who ran home-based businesses throughout the country in many diverse fields, as well as information on business formation, conduct and compliance with the law. It sold 50,000 copies. During this time many national magazines wrote about these issues.[11][12][13][14][15] At the White House Conference on Small Business in 1986, one of the major resolutions was a recommendation favoring lifting restrictions on home-based business.[16]

... The literature comes to very different conclusions with respect to the 'success' and growth ambitions of women HBB entrepreneurs. Some conclude that these businesses operate at the margins and struggle to survive (Thompson et al. 2009), while others found that home-based women owners were highly educated and made large sales (Loscocco and Smith-Hunter 2004). Home-based businesses are often regarded as 'lifestyle' businesses through which the owner translates a 'hobby' into a business idea (Newbery and Bosworth 2010). ...
The prospect of working from home has gained credibility over the years. Home offices can now compete with small commercial businesses and save on rent in the process. It may also be possible to tax deduct some of your home expenses while running a home based business.[2] Faxes, high speed internet connections, dedicated home telephone lines, and cell phones help to make a home-based business a reality. Earlier home businesses had been where families lived on the second floor of their house while converting the first floor into a store, where upon close of business they would secure the first floor and retire to the upper floors. This type of home business is still done in some rural areas. Many home businesses are started off in a much smaller capacity whilst the owner is still employed elsewhere, and then expanded once they are proven to be profitable.
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